Names in the Low Countries before 1150

Early-medieval personal names in The Netherlands and Flanders

Table of roots for Germanic names

The list below presents all elements (or roots) of the Germanic given names found in the Low Countries before 1150.
The roots have been spelled here according to Förstemann (1900). In the names list numerous variants of these standard spellings can be found. The meanings are mostly based on Förstemann (1900), sometimes on Van der Schaar (1992) or Mansion (1924) and, in a few cases, on Pokorny (1959) and Schoonheim (2004). For each root it has been indicated how often it was used in male and in female names, as either first element of a name (protothema) or as second element (deuterothema).
It was not always possible to identify the elements of which a name was composed; the uncertain elements are at the bottom of the table.

root meaning frequency as first element frequency as second element total
male female male female
Aba endearment for Alb*, Adelb*, Agb*, etc. 21       21
Abar powerful, effective   2     2
Af ancestor / power 1       1
Ag sword edge / fear 45 1     46
Agil sword edge / fear (=Ag) 29 1 2   32
Agin sword edge / fear (=Ag) 16 1     17
Agis horrifying 8 2     10
Aiva law 12 3     15
Alda old 47 5     52
Alfi elf 39 12     51
Alhi temple   1     1
Alja different 5       5
Aljan strength 4       4
Amal labour 21 5     26
Amat ? effort, zeal   2     2
Ambr tribal name: Ambrones 3       3
An grandfather, ancestor / to favour 15 1     16
And spirit / jealousy 7       7
Angil angle (sting) / angel 62 17     79
Ansi god 70 6 3   79
Ansti thank 1       1
Aper ? from Abar, Ebur, or abbreviation or Adalbert 6       6
Arin bird name: eagle 93       93
Asca tree name: ash 21       21
Atha father / goods, property 20 3     23
Athal noble 231 43     274
Auda wealth, possession 117 26     143
Austa eastern 5 2     7
Avi favourable 11 31     42
Aza father / goods, property (= Atha) 27 3     30
Badu battle 14 9 3   26
Baga battle 1       1
Balda courageous, bald 98 3 232 2 335
Bana to strike down, to kill / order 1   1   2
Banda banner     1   1
Barda giant 1       1
Barna child, offspring     4   4
Bav abbreviation of Baduwald etc. 8       8
Bera/Berin bear 80 10 20 2 112
Berhta brilliant 42 28 561 4 635
Bero second element -bera/berin or -berhta     12   12
Bib to tremble, to shiver 2 3     5
Bili mild, peaceful / battle axe, sword 4 2     6
Bland blond   1     1
Blic shine 2       2
Blidi glad 10 1     11
Bob boy 2       2
Bod to command 5   35   40
Boj tribal name: Boyar 7       7
Bon good 2       2
Boran birth / bearer, son 1   2   3
Bord shield 1   2   3
Bosi angry 14       14
Branda sword     58   58
Brodar brother 3       3
Brord spear point     1   1
Brunja breast(shield) / brown 17 1   2 20
Bun to live 2       2
Burgi to protect 9   1 85 95
Carl man, bloke 2       2
Chinda child, offspring     2 1 3
Chnuz strong 1   1   2
Clar clear 1 1     2
Crafti power 2       2
Cuni couragious, bald 23 4     27
Dadi deed 3 1     4
Daga day 3 1 16   20
Dava habit 1       1
Deurja dear, expensive 4 2     6
Disja wise   1     1
Dod abbreviation of -dolf names, or corruption of Dadi or Theuda 21 2     23
Doma judgement, judge 2       2
Don bowstring 1       1
Drog warrior 1       1
Drudi sweet, trusted 13 3   37 53
Dubon dark, grey / bird name: dove 1 2     3
Dug powerful, effective 1       1
Ebur wild boar 81 5     86
Ed from Atha or Id 4       4
Er honour 8 1     9
Era/Erin from Era or Harja 24 4     28
Ercan noble 19 5     24
Erla noble, count (English: earl) 14       14
Ermin God's name: Ermin, Irmin 10 27     37
Ernust serious 5       5
Erpa dark, grey 15       15
Fag joy 6       6
Falc pale, shiny /bird name: falcon 1       1
Fara family 2       2
Fasti solid, firm 8 2     10
Filu many 1       1
Fin tribal name: Finns 2       2
Fladi pure, clean / floor, house 2       2
Flan quick, impertinent 1       1
Flor ? from the Latin Florus, flower / floor, bottom 3       3
Forth fright / speed, progress 2 2     4
Fram fame 2 1     3
Franc tribal name: Franks 24       24
Fravi lord 11 1     12
Frisa tribal name: Frisians 2 2     4
Frithu peace 48 15 181 4 248
Froda wise 2       2
Fruma thoroughly 6       6
Fulca folk 130 16 2   148
Funsa charging forward     1   1
Gad bond, alliance 2       2
Gaila frivolous 32 9     41
Gairu spear 203 37 211   451
Gairu/Harja second element -er from Gairu or Harja     15   15
Gaman joy 1       1
Gardi (fenced) garden 3   3 90 96
Gavja residence 1       1
Gib gift 16 3   11 30
Gild gift 16 3 3 1 23
Gin money 1       1
Gisil/Gis to seduce 49 11 14   74
Glis hostage   2     2
Goda to glitter 167 17 55 1 240
Goltha God or good / progenitor of the Goths (incl. roots Gauta and Guda)   1 4   5
Grima gold 12 2 24   38
Grisja cruel / mask, helmet     1   1
Guma man 13       13
Gundi battle 27 3   6 36
Hab possession 2 1     3
Hag/Hagan advantage 9       9
Haidu elegant appearance       9 9
Haila healthy, whole 14 25     39
Haimi house 80 1     81
Halida hero 3 2     5
Han ? bird name: cock   1     1
Hardu hard, powerful 19 1 405 2 427
Harja army 112 10 224   346
Hathu battle 50 10 3   63
Hauha high 4 1 1   6
Havik bird name: hawk 1       1
Helan covering, shell 3       3
Helma helmet 6 1 103   110
Hildi battle, combat 51 25   62 138
Hilp help 1       1
Himila heaven 1       1
Hloda loud, clear, famous (of whom is spoken) 5 2     7
Horsca boisterous, cheerful 2       2
Hraban bird name: raven 18 1 41   60
Hraid famous 1       1
Hroc to croak (like a crow) / careful 4   7   11
Hroma fame 7       7
Hrothi fame 206 9     215
Hugu intellect 68       68
Hund headman 1   1   2
Huni tribal name: Huns 23   1 1 25
Husa house 7       7
Hvelp cub (young wolf)     1   1
Hwadal dazzling 1       1
Ib from Ebur, Id, Iv, etc. 3       3
Ic from Ag or Id 1   2   3
Id zeal 3 19     22
Ig from Ag or Id 4 1     5
Im from Ermin 26 26     52
In house, inn 1   11 1 13
Ing descendant of     33   33
Ingvi tribal name: Ingvaeones 4       4
Ir ? 2 1     3
Is/Isan ice, iron 22 2     24
Iv tree name: yew 2       2
Ka no meaning     7 10 17
Kin no meaning     53 11 64
Ko no meaning     81   81
La no meaning       34 34
Lac/Lec from Lac (wizard, sooth-sayer), Laic (to play, to dance) or Lav (unknown meaning)     9   9
Laifa survivor, son or daughter     28 5 33
Laitha to lead 17 1 2   20
Landa land 79 10 7   96
Lauga to bathe, clean       4 4
Leuba dear, precious 31 6   1 38
Leudi folk 117 25     142
Lin no meaning     78 4 82
Lindi tree name: linden / snake / child / well (source) 1     35 36
Lis to go, to follow       3 3
Lo no meaning     33   33
Lobbe softy 1       1
Mag child / sword 9       9
Magan strong 71 19     90
Mahti might 3 14     17
Mana man 9   74   83
Marca horse / border 12 3     15
Maru famous 1   99   100
Matha eer     1 1 2
Mathal gathering 10 3     13
Maura tribal name: Moors 5 1     6
Mim God's name: Mimir 2 2     4
Min small, sweet   2     2
Moda courage / spirit 2 1 1 9 13
Mulv God's name: Mullo 1       1
Munda protection 1   34 3 38
Muni though / amiable 1       1
Nanthi to dare 8   5   13
Nitha fighting spirit 4       4
Nivja new, young 2       2
Nodi necessary 8 2 29   39
Northa northern 7       7
Ob from Auda or other A-roots 2       2
Othal legacy 35 12     47
Radi council, advice 72 9 100 37 218
Ragan council / the Gods 168 38     206
Randu brim of a shield 3       3
Reif ? circle, ribbon     3   3
Ricja rich / king 60 29 378   467
Rim snow, frost 2       2
Risi giant 1       1
Runa secret / rune-character 1   1   2
Sahs tribal name: Saxons 24       24
Salva black 5       5
Sarva armament 2 4     6
Scalca servant     17   17
Scirja shining / sharp minded 1       1
Scoran tonsure 1       1
Sibja sib, kinship 1       1
Sigu/Sigis victory 120 20     140
Sintha trail, course, military expedition 2     13 15
Snel quick 8 1     9
Staina stone 5 1 7   13
Stilja silent 1       1
Svaba tribal name: Suebi 2       2
Svaid to burn, to glow 1       1
Svana bird name: swan 1 3     4
Svintha strong, brave, quick, smart 5 1   64 70
Taita cheerful / youthful 19 8 46   73
Thanc thank 16 1     17
Thegan dagger / knight 11 1     12
Theuda folk 231 36     267
Thinga gathering, 'thing' 3       3
Thiva servant     17   17
Thrasa quick / to fight 3       3
Thunar God's name: Thor / Donar 1       1
Thuring tribal name: Thuringii 1       1
Ub wild 9       9
Un to give 23       23
Ura aurochs 1       1
Vacar awake, watchful 1 1 14   16
Vadja agreement, pledge 1       1
Vald to rule 83 5 154   242
Valha to strike down, to kill 45 3 13   61
Van hope 23 1     24
Vand ? hike / twig 9 5     14
Var guard, protection / truth 5 2 4 30 41
Vardu guard   1 62   63
Varin guard, protection / truth (= Var) 65 4     69
Vasu to be effective     2   2
Vaz from Vadja or Varin 24       24
Vela good 1 2     3
Verca work     3   3
Vid forest / wide 38 3   3 44
Vifa woman, wife 1 5   34 40
Viga to battle, to defeat 89 8 7 39 143
Vilja to want, to long for 83 8     91
Vind/Vinid tribal name: Wends (Sorbs) 3 1     4
Vini friend 20   194 1 215
Vor to wander around 1   1   2
Vrac revenge 1   1   2
Vulfa wolf 46 6 298   350
Vulthar fame, honour 1       1
Vunja happiness 1       1
Wi root starting with Vi 3       3
Wl abbreviation of Vilja, Vulfa or Fulca 19 3     22
Za no meaning     1 14 15
Zo no meaning     127   127
A*     1     1
B*       14   14
E*   1       1
Ha*   9 1     10
Hi*   1       1
Ho*   2       2
L*   1       1
Li*   2       2
M*       2   2
Ma*   1       1
Na*   1       1
No*   1       1
R?       1   1
Ra*   3       3
S*   1       1
W*   3 1     4
unknown   8 2 5 3 18
none       609 187 796
total number of roots 239 126 87 41
total number of individuals 4926 866 4926 866



Start
Page


Introduction
Material & Methods
Summary

Regions
References
Lists:
Male names
Male names extended
Female names
Female names extended
Table of roots
Nicknames
Analyses:
Non-Germanic names
Single rooted names
Variation
Bynames
Composition rules Namesakes
© Dr. Kees C. Nieuwenhuijsen
www.keesn.nl
Last update: September 2012